Prostate cancer in recent studies has been found to be the most common type of cancer among men. In 2015, according to the American Cancer Society, doctors expect 220,800 new cases diagnosed every month and at least 27,540 deaths. Prostate cancer works not by re-writing the normal DNA arrangement of an individual but by re-programming the master regulator of the genes present in the prostate cells and thus drives them into a malignant growth.
Because of the many people prostate cancer affects per year and the high number of deaths, it is paramount that researchers, doctors and scientists find the best way to cure or prevent the cancer before it begins affecting individuals. Understanding how prostate cancer works is a great way to ensure that both treatment and cure are found easily. How prostate cancer cells work leaves doctors wondering if there is another process going on because of the few genetic mutations that have been found. Reprogramming of cells can be reversed easily and it may therefore be possible for it to be in drugs in the future to help patients prevent and treat the cancer.
Researchers have observed a transition from normal cells to tumor or cancerous cells. Looking at this, researchers think that it is possible to prevent an emerging pattern or reverse a pattern that had already occurred, helping the patient return back to normal cells and health.
Androgen receptors are a transcription factor that controls how rapidly or slowly the DNA information is transformed into RNA. Androgens are proteins that attach themselves to specific DNA sequences. These DNA sequences are called binding sites. The transcription factor controls the activities in the genes that will operate in the specific cells. It has been observed that he binding process in every man’s tumor is the same as the binding process in another man’s tumor and there is nothing much in the terms of differences in genes activities.
Two factors FOXA1 and HOXB13 were found to be very critical in ensuring that the re-programming of the androgen receptors was successful. This process of re-programming the androgen receptors during tumorigenesis represents one of the most recurrent epigenetic alteration that has been discovered in the journey to learning how prostate cancer cells work and how cancer can be treated and cured. Perhaps in the near future, prostate cancer will no longer be such a threat to the life of a normal man.